Margaret J. Snowling,1 and Charles Hulme2

Department of Psychology, University of York, York, UK; 2Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, University College, London, UK

This article reviews our understanding of reading disorders in children and relates it to current proposals for their classification in DSM-5. There are two different, commonly occurring, forms of reading disorder in children which arise from different underlying language difficulties. Dyslexia (as defined in DSM-5), or decoding difficulty, refers to children who have difficulty in mastering the relationships between the spelling patterns of words and their pronunciations. These children typically read aloud inaccurately and slowly, and experience additional problems with spelling. Dyslexia appears to arise principally from a weakness in phonological (speech sound) skills, and there is good evidence that it can be ameliorated by systematic phonic teaching combined with phonological awareness training. The other major form of reading difficulty is reading comprehension impairment. These children read aloud accurately and flu- ently, but have difficulty understanding what they have read. Reading comprehension impairment ap- pears to arise from weaknesses in a range of oral language skills including poor vocabulary knowledge, weak grammatical skills and difficulties in oral language comprehension. We suggest that the omission of reading comprehension impairment from DSM-5 is a serious one that should be remedied. Both dyslexia and reading comprehension impairment are dimensional in nature, and show strong continuities with other disorders of language. We argue that recognizing the continuities between reading and language disorders has important implications for assessment and treatment, and we note that the high rates of comorbidity between reading disorders and other seemingly disparate disorders (including ADHD and motor disorders) raises important challenges for understanding these disorders.

Keywords: Reading disorders, language disorders, dyslexia, reading comprehension impairment, intervention.

[PDF] Annual Research Review_The nature and classification of reading disorders – a commentary on proposals for DSM-5


 Ossy Tiara Novevian

Fakultas Psikologi, Universitas Diponegoro


Penelitian dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antarakomitmen terhadap perusahaan dengan intensi berkreativitas pada penyiar radioswasta di Kota Semarang. Hipotesis penelitian adalah terdapat hubungan yangpositif antara komitmen terhadap perusahaan dengan intensi berkreativitas pada penyiar radio swasta di Kota Semarang. Semakin tinggi komitmen terhadap perusahaan maka akan semakin tinggi pula intensi berkreativitas. Alat ukur yang digunakan pada penelitian berupa skala, yaitu Skala Intensi Berkreativitas dan Skala Komitmen Terhadap Perusahaan. Skala diujicobakan pada populasi penelitian yang berjumlah 54 subjek dengan karakteristik berprofesi sebagai penyiar di radio swasta di Kota Semarang, sudah bekerja minimal tiga tahun, pendidikan minimal SMA atau se-derajat. Skala Intensi Berkreativitas terdiri dari 51 aitem (rix =0,952) dan Skala Komitmen terhadap Perusahaan terdiri dari 29 aitem (rix =0,932). Sampel penelitian adalah 54 penyiar radio swasta di Kota Semarang. Teknik pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan nonprobability sampling, yaitu dengan teknik sampel jenuh. Analisis data dilakukan dengan analisis regresi sederhana. Berdasarkan analisis data yang dilakukan diperoleh nilai koefisien korelasi (rxy) sebesar 0,747 dengan p= 0,000 (p<0,05). Arah hubungan yang positif menunjukkan bahwa semakin tinggi komitmen terhadap perusahaan, maka semakin kuat intensi berkreativitas pada penyiar. Tingkat signifikansi korelasi p=0,000 (p<0,05) menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara variabel prediktor dengan variabel kriterium. Sumbangan komitmen terhadap perusahaan pada intensi berkreativitas pada penyiar radio swasta di Kota Semarang adalah sebesar 55,8%. Sementara sisanya 44,2% dipengaruhi oleh faktor-faktor lain yang tidak diungkap dalam penelitian ini.

Kata kunci: Komitmen terhadap Perusahaan, Intensi Berkreativitas, Penyiar Radio Swasta.


Catherine Lord and Rebecca M. Jones

Center for Autism and the Developing Brain, Weill-Cornell Medical College and New York Presbyterian Hospital/ Westchester Division, White Plains, NY, USA

Background: The nosology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is at a critical point in history as thefield seeks to better define dimensions of social-communication deficits and restricted/repetitivebehaviors on an individual level for both clinical and neurobiological purposes. These differentdimensions also suggest an increasing need for quantitative measures that accurately map their dif-ferences, independent of developmental factors such as age, language level and IQ. Method: Psycho-metric measures, clinical observation as well as genetic, neurobiological and physiological researchfrom toddlers, children and adults with ASD are reviewed. Results: The question of how to conceptu-alize ASDs along dimensions versus categories is discussed within the nosology of autism and theproposed changes to the DSM-5 and ICD-11. Differences across development are incorporated into thenew classification frameworks. Conclusions: It is crucial to balance the needs of clinical practice inASD diagnostic systems, with neurobiologically based theories that address the associations betweensocial-communication and restricted/repetitive dimensions in individuals. Clarifying terminology,improving description of the core features of ASD and other dimensions that interact with them andproviding more valid and reliable ways to quantify them, both for research and clinical purposes, willmove forward both practice and science.

Keywords: Autism spectrum disorders, dimensions, classi-fication, diagnosis, DSM-IV, DSM-5, development.

[PDF] Annual Research Review_Re-thinking the classification of autism spectrum disorders


Alexander Haubold, Bradley S. Peterson, and Ravi Bansal

Columbia College of Physicians & Surgeons and New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA

Brain morphometry in recent decades has increased our understanding of the neural bases of psy-chiatric disorders by localizing anatomical disturbances to specific nuclei and subnuclei of the brain. Atleast some of these disturbances precede the overt expression of clinical symptoms and possibly areendophenotypes that could be used to diagnose an individual accurately as having a specific psychiatricdisorder. More accurate diagnoses could significantly reduce the emotional and financial burden ofdisease by aiding clinicians in implementing appropriate treatments earlier and in tailoring treatment tothe individual needs. Several methods, especially those based on machine learning, have been proposedthat use anatomical brain measures and gold-standard diagnoses of participants to learn decision rulesthat classify a person automatically as having one disorder rather than another. We review the generalprinciples and procedures for machine learning, particularly as applied to diagnostic classification, andthen review the procedures that have thus far attempted to diagnose psychiatric illnesses automaticallyusing anatomical measures of the brain. We discuss the strengths and limitations of extant proceduresand note that the sensitivity and specificity of these procedures in their most successful implementa-tions have approximated 90%. Although these methods have not yet been applied within clinicalsettings, they provide strong evidence that individual patients can be diagnosed accurately using thespatial pattern of disturbances across the brain.

Keywords: Machine learning, brain morphometry,automated diagnosis, cortical thickness, psychiatric disorders, cross validation, support vectormachines.

[PDF] Annual Research Review_Progress in using brain morphometry as a clinical tool for diagnosing psychiatric disorders

Benjamin B. Lahey1 and Irwin D. Waldman2

Departments of Health Studies and Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA

Background: A better understanding of the nature and etiology of conduct disorder (CD) can inform nosology and vice versa. We posit that any prevalent form of psychopathology, including CD, can be best understood if it is studied in the context of other correlated forms of child and adolescent psychopa- thology using formal models to guide inquiry. Methods: Review of both cross-sectional and longitudi- nal studies of the place of CD in the phenotypic and causal structure of prevalent psychopathology, with an emphasis on similarities and differences between CD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Papers were located using Web of Science by topic searches with no restriction on year of publica- tion. Results: Although some important nosologic questions remain unanswered, the dimensional phenotype of CD is well defined. CD differs from other disorders in its correlates, associated impair- ment, and course. Nonetheless, it is robustly correlated with many other prevalent dimensions of psychopathology both concurrently and predictively, including both other ‘externalizing’ disorders and some ‘internalizing’ disorders. Based on emerging evidence, we hypothesize that these concurrent and predictive correlations result primarily from widespread genetic pleiotropy, with some genetic factors nonspecifically influencing risk for multiple correlated dimensions of psychopathology. In contrast, environmental influences mostly act to differentiate dimensions of psychopathology from one another both concurrently and over time. CD and ODD share half of their genetic influences, but their genetic etiologies are distinct in other ways. Unlike most other dimensions of psychopathology, half of the genetic influences on CD appear to be unique to CD. In contrast, ODD broadly shares nearly all of its genetic influences with other disorders and has little unique genetic variance. Conclusions: Conduct disorder is a relatively distinct syndrome at both phenotypic and etiologic levels, but much is revealed by studying CD in the context of its causal and phenotypic associations with other disorders over time. Advancing and refining formal causal models that specify the common and unique causes and biological mechanisms underlying each correlated dimension of psychopathology should facilitate research on the fundamental nature and nosology of CD.

Keywords: Conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, taxonomy, etiology, homotypic and heterotypic continuity.

[PDF] Annual Research Review_Phenotypic and causal structure of conduct disorder in the broader context of prevalent forms of psychopathology

Wah ini rencana yah sangat menggembirakan buatku..
kapan lagi jalan bareng Teman-teman nih..
seperti yang tertera pada poster di atas rutenya tuh dari

Jogja –> Pantai Teluk Penyu –> Benteng Pendem –> Batu Raden –> Owabong –> Jogja

yah itung-itung ini wisata setelah ujian Semester… semacam refreshing gitu.. hahahaha……..
tapi ini khusus untuk anak-anak Psikologi, Universitas Sanata Dharma
dan kuota untuk 25orang pertama dah habis kemarin…
buset… cepat amat yang daftarnya…
sekarang bagi yang mau ikut tinggal kuota yang mengharuskan untuk membayar Rp. 120.000,-  maklum lah … tapi itu kayaknya masih murah deh.. hhehehehe (promosi)..
Oke… teman2 yang masih mau ikut… cepetan daftarnya yah…. hahahah
ditunggu loh……

informasi lebih lanjut hubungi Doketr…
yah g lah .. hubungi nomor2 yang ada di Poster….

KRISTIN K. BARKER Oregon State University

Journal of Health and Social Behavior 2008, Vol 49 (March): 20–36

This article illustrates the role electronic support groups play in consumer- driven medicalization. The analysis is based on an observational study of a year in the life of an electronic support group for sufferers of the contested illness fi- bromyalgia syndrome. The analysis builds on and extends scholarship concern- ing the growing influence of lay expertise in the context of medical uncertainty by showing how the dominant beliefs and routine practices of this electronic community simultaneously (and paradoxically) challenge the expertise of physi- cians and encourage the expansion of medicine’s jurisdiction. Drawing on their shared embodied expertise, participants confirm the medical character of their problem and its remedy, and they empower each other to search for physicians who will recognize and treat their condition accordingly. Physician compliance is introduced as a useful concept for understanding the relationship between lay expertise, patient-consumer demand, and contemporary (and future) instances of medicalization.

[PDF] Journal of Health and Social Behavior-Electronic Support Groups, Patient-Consumers, and Medicalization The Case of Contested Illness