JOURNALS PSYCHOLOGY

Annual Research Review: Conceptualising functional impairment in children and adolescents

Ronald M. Rapee,1 Susan M. Bogels,2 Cathy M. van der Sluis,2 Michelle G. Craske,3 and Thomas Ollendick4

Centre for Emotional Health, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia; 2University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 3Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4Child Study Center, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA

Functional impairment is a key factor in the clinical importance of mental health problems in children. Yet, the nature of impairment and criteria for defining and assessing impairment in childhood disorders has been surprisingly overlooked in much of the literature. The current article examines the extant literature on the conceptualisation, nature and assessment of impairment in childhood disorders. Relations between diagnostic symptoms and functional impairment are discussed together with the influence of impairment on diagnostic decisions and prevalence rates. Several factors influencing impairment in childhood such as culture, development and gender are considered. This article con- cludes with a discussion of the utility of separating judgements of impairment from specific diagnoses, which is proposed for consideration in the forthcoming DSM-5.

Keywords: Mental health, quality of life.

[PDF] Annual Research Review: Conceptualising functional impairment in children and adolescents

Annual Research Review: Functional somatic symptoms and associated anxiety and depression – developmental psychopathology in pediatric practice

John V. Campo

Department of Psychiatry, Professor and chair, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

Background: Medically unexplained physical symptoms, commonly referred to as functional somatic symptoms (FSS), are common in pediatric medical settings and associated with suffering, impairment, and medical help seeking. The association of pediatric FSS with anxiety and depressive symptoms and disorders across the life span is reviewed. Method: Review and critique of controlled studies examining cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of FSS with anxiety and depressive symptoms and disor- ders in community-based and clinical samples of children and adolescents. Results: FSS are consis- tently associated cross-sectionally with anxiety and depressive symptoms and disorders in childhood and adolescence, and the likelihood of associated anxiety and depression increases with the number of reported FSS. The presence of one or more FSS early in life is associated with an increased likelihood of multiple FSS and anxiety and depressive symptoms and disorders later in life, and anxiety and depressive symptoms and disorders in childhood are associated with subsequent multiple FSS. Conclusion: Strong associations between FSS, anxiety, and depression across the life span suggest the need to reconsider existing nosology and reconceptualize symptomatic relationships. Large, population-based longitudinal studies of FSS, anxiety, and depressive symptoms and disorders are needed to establish temporal rela- tionships between the various symptoms and conditions.

Keywords: Anxiety, comorbidity, depression, emotion, somatization.

[PDF] Annual Research Review: Functional somatic symptoms and associated anxiety and depression – developmental psychopathology in pediatric practice

Annual Research Review: Hoarding disorder – potential benefits and pitfalls of a new mental disorder

David Mataix-Cols and Alberto Pertusa

Departments of Psychosis Studies and Psychology, King’s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK

Background: The inclusion of a new mental disorder in the nomenclature is not a trivial matter. Many have highlighted the risks of an ever-increasing number of mental disorders and of overpathologizing human behaviour. Given the proposed inclusion of a new hoarding disorder (HD) in DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition), it is pertinent to discuss the potential benefits and pitfalls of such a development. Method: In this article, we examine whether HD fits with the current DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition) and proposed DSM-5 definitions of ‘mental disorder’. We next discuss the potential benefits and risks of the creation ofthis diagnosis. Finally, we address some additional considerations that may arise when proposing a new disorder for the nomenclature and identify some of the gaps in the knowledge base. Conclusion: HD fits the current DSM-IV and proposed DSM-5 definitions for a mental disorder. On balance, the potential benefits of creating the new diagnosis (e.g. identification of the majority of cases who clearly suffer and need help but are currently missed out by the existing diagnostic categories) outweigh the potential harms (e.g. pathologizing normal behaviour). Whether the criteria will need modification for their use in children/adolescents is unclear and more research is needed to address this ques- tion.

Keywords: Hoarding disorder, DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Dis- orders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR)), DSM-5, obsessive-compulsive disorder.

[PDF] Annual Research Review Hoarding disorder potential benefits and pitfalls of a new mental disorder

Annual Research Review: Impact of advances in genetics in understanding developmental psychopathology

Anjene M. Addington and Judith L. Rapoport

Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA

It was hoped that diagnostic guidelines for, and treatment of, child psychiatric disorders in DSM-5 would be informed by the wealth of clinical genetic research related to neurodevelopmental disorders. In spite of remarkable advances in genetic technology, this has not been the case. Candidate gene, gen- ome-wide association, and rare copy number variant (CNV) studies have been carried out for attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Autism, Tourette’s Syndrome, and schizophrenia, with intriguing results, but environmental factors, incomplete penetrance, pleiotropy, and genetic heterogeneity, underlying any given phenotype have limited clinical translation. One promising approach may be the use of developmental brain imaging measures as more relevant phenotypes. This is particularly impor- tant, as subtle abnormalities in timing and expression of gene pathways underlying brain development may well link these disorders and be the ultimate target of treatments.

Keywords: Developmental psychopathology, genetics, copy number variants, pre-natal diagnosis, nosology, prevention.

[PDF] Annual Research Review_Impact of advances in genetics in understanding developmental psychopathology

Tinggalkan Balasan

Isikan data di bawah atau klik salah satu ikon untuk log in:

Logo WordPress.com

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Logout / Ubah )

Gambar Twitter

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Facebook

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Google+

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Logout / Ubah )

Connecting to %s